Often refered to as the "tear drop" due to its shape, the vastus medialis is situated to the inner part of the front of the thigh, and is one of four muscles which together are referred to as the quadriceps and commonly responsible for extension of the knee.
Exercises which require the extension of the knee joint will recruit the vastus medialis, with the leg extension machine offering a great isolation exercise to stress the quadriceps, including the vastus medialis. The squat is another exercise which will stress the vastus medialis, and is often seen as the king of lower body exercises. The squat recruits many lower body muscles and is overall very taxing.
For those with injuries to the upper body or back, the leg extension will likely be the best suited exercise to directly stimulate the vastus medialis, and has the added benefit of allowing for isolateral training.
When training for muscular size it is often best to train in a rep range of 6-12 repetitions, although there is often much debate on the optimal rep range. It would be advisable to experiment with different ranges to see which suits you.
Vastus Medialis courtesy of Fitness Uncovered - Bodybuilding & Fitness
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